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In this page, the scientific publications (conference papers, magazine, journals, etc.) presenting the project results, and published in Open Access, will be made available. 

Conference papers

Cite this: P. J. Nesse, N. V. Nielsen, S. Davidson, L. Gillund and M. F. Awan, "5G in Rural Forest enables Real Time decision support and new Remote Operation solutions," 2023 3rd International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Communications and Mechatronics Engineering (ICECCME), Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 2023, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ICECCME57830.2023.10253125.


A lot of attention has traditionally been given to digitalization of smart cities and urban areas. However, bridging the digital dive for the rural areas has become necessary to exploit the full economic growth from new technologies since many industries also belong to the countryside. This paper introduces novel insights into use cases from the forest industry and the perceived impact from innovations activated from technologies such as the fifth-generation mobile technology (5G) and Internet of Things (IoT). An agile methodology is followed developing the forest use cases to handle the risk and uncertainty within this domain. After interviews with stakeholders from the forest value chain we found that digitalization of the forest value chain is necessary. We also found three distinct use cases with different scenarios where premium cellular network (5G) connection can make an impact. The potential impact dimensions were identified and operationalized in three groups: business, user/society, and environment. Our findings will set the scene for the forthcoming specification of the use case requirements and the validation of Proof of Concept’s (PoC’s) during the next step in our agile methodology. Our work is funded through Horizon Europe program COMMECT and PoC’s trial results from the Norwegian forest living lab will be published at a later stage.

Published in: 2023 3rd International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Communications and Mechatronics Engineering (ICECCME)

Date of Conference: 19-21 July 2023

Date Added to IEEE Xplore22 September 2023

ISBN Information:

DOI: 10.1109/ICECCME57830.2023.10253125

Publisher: IEEE

Conference Location: Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

Cite this: M. López, S. B. Damsgaard, I. Rodríguez and P. Mogensen, "Connecting Rural Areas: an Empirical Assessment of 5G Terrestrial-LEO Satellite Multi-Connectivity," 2023 IEEE 97th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Spring), Florence, Italy, 2023, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/VTC2023-Spring57618.2023.10199206.


The digital transformation accomplished in recent years in the agricultural, farming, forestry, and transport industries has led to a series of emerging connectivity-based use cases that demand ubiquitous coverage. In such a scenario, Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN), and their integration with Terrestrial Networks (TN), will play a key role to achieve global and seamless connectivity. This paper evaluates the current service provided by cellular terrestrial networks in rural areas and proposes and investigates a multi-connectivity solution for the use of TN and NTN to improve such service. Experimental data was gathered along a route covering more than 250 km in a rural area, using two multi-band cellular modems connected over public 5G non-standalone (NSA) cellular networks from two different operators and a SpaceX Starlink User Terminal (UT) connected to the Starlink Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite network. The multi-connectivity solution that we propose can be easily implemented, and results show that having an additional link to a satellite network avoids service degradation due to a lack of cellular coverage in up to 20 % of the route. The proposed solution also allows achieving round-trip latency targets of 100 ms with 99.99% reliability.

Published in: 2023 IEEE 97th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2023-Spring)

Date of Conference: 20-23 June 2023

Date Added to IEEE Xplore14 August 2023

DOI: 10.1109/VTC2023-Spring57618.2023.10199206

Publisher: IEEE

Conference Location: Florence, Italy

Cite this: M. López, S. B. Damsgaard, I. Rodríguez and P. Mogensen, "An Empirical Analysis of Multi-Connectivity between 5G Terrestrial and LEO Satellite Networks," 2022 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2022, pp. 1115-1120, doi: 10.1109/GCWkshps56602.2022.10008752.


Integrating Terrestrial Networks (TN) and Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTN) is crucial to providing fifth generation (5G) ubiquitous coverage and exploiting the potential of connectivity-based solutions. This article presents an initial empirical evaluation of both broadband satellite and terrestrial cellular connectivity solutions. End-to-end latency, Packet Error Rate (PER), and uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) throughput statistics are obtained using a SpaceX Starlink satellite antenna terminal connected to the Starlink satellite network and a multiband 5G New Radio (NR) modem connected over a public 5G Non-Standalone (NSA) network. Furthermore, we study how the maximum end-to-end latency can be reduced by using multi-connectivity between terrestrial and LEO satellite networks. Results suggest that the integration of terrestrial and NTN is a competitive solution to fill the existing coverage gaps and provide seamless service to low-latency and high throughput requiring applications.

Published in: 2022 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps)

Date of Conference: 04-08 December 2022

Date Added to IEEE Xplore12 January 2023

DOI: 10.1109/GCWkshps56602.2022.10008752

Publisher: IEEE

Conference Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Cite this: Lechuga, M. M. L., Nørremark, M., Jorguseski, L., D'Acunto, L., Politis, C., & Palattella, M. R. (2023). MultiConnectivity for Livestock Transport in Rural Areas. Abstract from 2023 EuCNC & 6G Summit, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract: The transport of livestock is an essential part of the supply chain of animal breeding for food production. The regulations imposed by the European Union to ensure animal welfare require constant monitoring and reporting of the animals’ health status and conditions before, during, and after transportation. However, the poor coverage and connectivity performance in rural areas hinder compliance with the regulations and the optimization of the livestock trading process. In this article, we introduce the main connectivity challenges for the livestock transport sector and propose potential solutions to overcome them. We also discuss how further digitalization would help optimize the livestock trading process.

Cite this: M. I. Saglam, "Conditional Handover for Non-Terrestrial Networks," 2023 10th International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM), Istanbul, Turkiye, 2023, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/WINCOM59760.2023.10322919.


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Re-lease 17 (Re1-17) standardizes Non-Terrestrial Networks (NTNs). The 3GPP 5th Generation (5G) Advanced and 6th Generation (6G) technologies aim to enable reliable, environment-friendly, cost-efficient and secure NTNs. Integrating Terrestrial Networks (TNs) and NTNs can introduce ubiquitous coverage for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs). While NTNs have many coverage advantages, the operation of NTNs has several challenges, like mobility functionalities. Even the stationary MNO subscribers have to make HandOver (HO) due to Non-Geostationary Satellite Orbit (NGSO) satellites’ trajectories. Conditional HO (CHO) is designed in 3GPP Re1-16 for TNs. It cannot be directly applied to NTNs for fixing mobility challenges. Hence, new necessary enhancements need to be designed. This paper presents an overview of CHO and signaling challenges related to NTN coverage and mobility functionalities, along with their potential solutions.

Published in: 2023 10th International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM)

Date of Conference: 26-28 October 2023

Date Added to IEEE Xplore22 November 2023

DOI: 10.1109/WINCOM59760.2023.10322919

Publisher: IEEE

Conference Location: Istanbul, Turkiye

Cite this: Ali Aygul M., Turkmen H., Saglam I., Ali Cirpan H., Arslan, H.  (2023), Centralized and Decentralized ML-Enabled Integrated Terrestrial and Non-Terrestrial Networks, arXiv:2207.11028

ABSTRACT: Non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) are a critical enabler of the persistent connectivity vision of sixth-generation networks, as they can service areas where terrestrial infrastructure falls short. However, the integration of these networks with the terrestrial network is laden with obstacles. The dynamic nature of NTN communication scenarios and numerous variables render conventional model-based solutions computationally costly and impracticable for resource allocation, parameter optimization, and other problems. Machine learning (ML)-based solutions, thus, can perform a pivotal role due to their inherent ability to uncover the hidden patterns in time-varying, multi-dimensional data with superior performance and less complexity. Centralized ML (CML) and decentralized ML (DML), named so based on the distribution of the data and computational load, are two classes of ML that are being studied as solutions for the various complications of terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks (TNTN) integration. Both have their benefits and drawbacks under different circumstances, and it is integral to choose the appropriate ML approach for each TNTN integration issue. To this end, this paper goes over the TNTN integration architectures as given in the 3rd generation partnership project standard releases, proposing possible scenarios. Then, the capabilities and challenges of CML and DML are explored from the vantage point of these scenarios.

Journal articles

Cite this: Ozkan, H.U., Savran, M.K., Kaptan, S., Saglam, I. & Kor, C.V. (2023). In Rural Areas Internet Connection Problems and Solution Recommendations Experienced in The Process of Using Smart Agriculture Methods in Olive Farming . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, 7(3), 336-346. doi: 10.29329/ijiaar.2023.602.8